Due to the fact that a long period of coriander seed germination, slow growth in the first half of vegetation under it must take a relatively clean portions of weeds. Coriander has a weak ability to resist weeds, especially in the early phases of plant growth. During this period many sprouting weeds not only manage to rise, but much stronger, resulting in the death of weak crop. Especially dangerous are the weeds for coriander couch grass, sow thistle, Cynodon, Ostrets and others. Under coriander assign plots emerged from the early predecessors: winter wheat, legumes, potatoes, corn for silage. In this case there is sufficient time for the measures to combat weeds in the fall. It is believed that coriander return to the same field should be no earlier than 4-5 years. Before being trafficked, coriander goes through several stages of formation.
Basic and seedbed
Basic processing system depends on the type and duration of the debris field planting. For minor type and spring irrigation can be used include treatment through after cleaning predecessor peeling 10-12 cm, and after the emergence of the field of arable units processed at 25-27 cm. In the future, as the emergence of the weeds carried harrowing, cultivation at 10 12 cm.
The purpose of seedbed for coriander - moisture retention, weed control and to create favorable conditions for seed germination. Presowing treatment during the spring sowing is carried out depending on soil compaction and leveled surface of the field. When aligned in the loose state of the field is sufficiently harrowing with heavy harrows. On compacted and poorly aligned field carried harrowing and cultivation.
Preparation of seeds for sowing
Farmers have always tried to select for planting the largest and most full-bodied grain. Large seeds are well-maintained deep placement (do7-8sm), which is very important in arid spring. Large seeds will sprout, and the plants are more vitality, plants bloom earlier and produce higher yields. The resulting crop has high grain size of the fruit. However, a very large seeds with a mass of 12-14 g and above are often inferior, with a thick shell and other defects.
To reduce the germination and receive friendly shoots coriander seeds should be subjected to heating air-heat for 2-3 days in the crumbled layer thickness of 5-7 cm. The air-thermal heating is the easiest and most affordable technique seedbed preparation seed germination accelerating 4- 6 days. To protect from diseases coriander mandatory reception preplant treatment disinfectants.
Care of crops
After a harrowing light sowing used harrows for leveling the surface at low speed machine or packing of ring-shporovymi rollers. For weed control in crops of coriander approbated significant amount of herbicides. More effective use of herbicides in the phase of 2-3 true leaves of coriander.
Coriander also can damage a variety of pests and diseases affect many. From the most common pests: coriander semyaed, umbrella bugs, aphids, wireworms, cutworms Khrushchev and winter. The greatest damage to crops Coriander Coriander semyaed deals. Damaged semyaedom coriander fruits lose their germination and fatty oil, and essential oil is reduced by 18-27%. Processing is carried out periodically during the summer in the phase of stem pests - budding and immediately after flowering.
Of all the diseases occurring most dangerous ramulyarioz coriander. Mass development of the disease observed in wet years. Largely coriander may be affected and normal for moisture loss during the years of frequent and strong growing. Particularly strong disease develops under wet weather coincides with flowering coriander. Complex application of measures to protect plants from pests and diseases in the cultivation of coriander can significantly reduce its losses.
Cleaning of seeds
Comes from the combine biologically active mass of seeds should be cleaned in a single stream with the threshing. Cleaning commercial coriander does not cause particular difficulties and can be carried out on all grain-cleaning machines for other crops.
Setting machines manufactured in accordance with the technological scheme. Sieve and the air flow rate is selected for each batch of seed. Small heavy impurities are separated mainly on podsevnyh sieve. The air flow rate is set so as to prevent removal of whole coriander seeds as waste.
Coriander best responds to the application of nitrogen and phosphorus fertilizers is slightly worse. The best results are obtained with simultaneous application of nitrogen and phosphate fertilizers. The best way to use a fall application of fertilizer under zjablevoj. When making his spring under cultivation fertilizer efficiency is reduced, especially in dry conditions. Feeding coriander during the growing season gives a positive effect only in rare years when high soil moisture. Coriander good use of the aftereffect of fertilizers made under the previous culture. However, directly below coriander fertilizer must be made whether or not fertilized precursor.
The methods and sowing
By their very biology coriander plastic plant and can be cultivated as a Rotary culture, and equally as a continuous culture method of seeding. A method of planting coriander determined not only by its biological characteristics, but also the degree and nature of contamination sites, the level of fertility of the soil, supply moisture during the growing season.
Minimum temperature for seed germination 4 ... 6° and optimal +18 ... +20° C, seedlings can withstand freezing to -8 ...- 10 ° C, and in the phase of the outlet temperatures down to -18 ...- 20 ° C. Seeding can be carried out in the autumn term, while ensuring outlets with 6-8 leaves. Spring sowing is carried out simultaneously with early crops.
Sowing advisable to carry out the ordinary way with aisles of 15 cm. The use of crops in wide (between rows 45-60 cm) does not give the desired effect in weed control by mechanical means, but enhances the branching plant that stretches maturation and increases losses during harvesting.
Failure to comply with the optimal harvesting date coriander leads to great losses of seeds. The main difficulty in determining the timing of harvesting is that ripening on the umbrellas of different orders occur simultaneously. Ripe fruit crumble easily, especially at alternate wetting and desiccation. Strong osypaemost fruit browning observed since 70% of umbrellas. The highest fruit yield and collection of essential oil is obtained by harvesting in the interval between brownish 20 - 60% of umbrellas.
Coriander can be removed in two ways: direct harvesting and separately.
In order to avoid losses from shedding cleaning should start direct harvesting when ripe 60-70% of umbrellas. The disadvantage of this cleaning method is that with ripe fruits fall into a hopper and green unripe fruits of an admixture of high humidity. All this creates additional costs for cleaning and drying of the grain, often yield losses in the purification is 20-25%.
Cleaning coriander separate browning process is carried out at 40% of umbrellas. In this case, after 5-6 days fetuses humidity drops to 16% when you can start recruiting and threshing rolls. This gives a strong guarantee for the preservation of the crop from the adverse effects of wind and rain. Selection of coriander rolls produce grain harvesters with careful regulation, avoiding nedomolota strong and shatter fruit.
Peeled, sorted, brought to the sowing conditions, zaetiketirovannye coriander seeds are stored in a dry, well-ventilated seed vaults separately from food and fodder grain in piles height of 2-2.5 m 6-8 rows.When storing the seeds determine the temperature, the moisture content, check the appearance of seeds, color, odor, ventilate the room. At least once every 2 months check vigor and seed germination. Seed stored for 2 years at a humidity of 13%.